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Formation of Nations (All European Nations)

Moldovan/Moldova: Development of a Nation
How Moldova became Moldova, and how the Moldovans became Moldovan.

MoldovaHow Moldovans as a people, and the country of Moldova as a nation-state, evolved and materialized into current form, in terms of ancestral bloodlines, the Moldovan language, borders, culture, and even how they received their name.


Ancestral Background
Development of Language
Formation of Borders
Etymology (How Name Received)
Culture
Moldova in 2008

 

Moldovan Ancestral Background:

Romania and North Black Sea provincesSame as Romanian, but with a slightly more evident Slavic component, due to its position at the edge of Russia.

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Development of Moldovan Language:

Same as Romanian until the establishment of the Principality of Moldavia (encompassing modern Moldova) in 1359. This separated the region somewhat from the Wallachia and Transylvania regions (the other two primary Romanian regions). As a result, the Moldavians developed their own variation of the Romanian language, marking the first separation of the two languages. Some Russian influence became embedded during the long-Hungarytime Russian rule during 19th and 20th centuries.

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Formation of Moldovan Borders:
 

  1. Essentially part of Romania, although on the outskirts of the Romanian region. It was often considered part of Wallachia. It came under Tatar influence during reign of the Golden Horde in the 13th century, separating it from Wallachia, and forever creating a distinction between Moldavia (as it was known) and Wallachia.
  2. 1342 – With the weakening of Tatar (Turkish/Horde) rule in modern Moldova, Hungary sent a force to the area to establish it as a buffer against the nomadic warriors from the east, conquering the region.
  3. 1359 – A Romanian prince breaks away from Hungary, forming the Principality of Moldavia.
    Ottoman Empire Conquests
  4. 1538 – Moldavia falls under Ottoman reign (a Muslim, Turkic empire), but with the right of self government (except for foreign policy).
  5. Balkans independence from Ottoman Empire1711 – After it was discovered that Moldavia was negotiating with the Russians during the Russo-Turkish Wars, the Ottomans instituted direct rule in Moldavia. Same with Wallachia in 1714.
  6. 1812 – The Ottomans, an ally of France, went to war with Russia in 1806. Russia gained the territory of Bessarabia (constituting the majority of modern Moldova).
  7. 1859 – As part of the Crimean War, Moldavia gained the southern part of Bessarabia fro, combining with Wallachia to form Romania, which remained a vassal to the Ottoman Empire.
  8. 1878 – After the Ottoman Empire was defeated by Russia in final Russo-Turkish War, it agreed to hand Cyprus over to the United Kingdom. Russia desired to annex Balkans CampaignRomania, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria, but the United Kingdom prevented it from doing so with a show of force. Following the war Romania was forced to cede southern Bessarabia to Russia. Bessarabia constituted about 2/3 of modern Moldova.
  9. 1917 – Bessarabia was separated from Russia during its struggles in World War I, joining its historical compatriots of Romania.
  10. 1940 – Pressured by the Russians, and weakened by German invasions from the west during World War II, Romania ceded territories that would make up Moldova to Russia (part of former Moldavia). It was formed as Moldavian SSR, a client state to the USSR.
  11. Moldova declared independence from the USSR during the coup d’etat deposing Gorbachev in 1991.

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Etymology (How Name Received):

Soviet Union takes MoldovaThe Principality of Moldavia, which originated in the 14th century, was named after the nearby Moldova River. The name has remained associated with the region ever since, becoming the name of the Republic of Moldova, when the region gained independence in 1991 upon the collapse of the Soviet Union.

 

Moldovan Culture:

Moldovan culture is a combination between Romanian and Russian cultures. Romanian culture was originally rooted in Roman/Latin culture, but after more than four centuries of Muslim Ottoman Empire rule, its Roman cultural ties were mostly severed, and it began with a clean cultural slate after liberation in 1878.

Moldova came under Soviet rule during World War II. It had long been a rural outback, and remained so during the Soviet era. Moldovan culture was suppressed during the Soviet years, but has been rejuvenated since gaining independence since 1991.

 

Moldova in 2008:

Economy: One of the poorest countries in Europe. Favorable climate and terrain/soil for farming, but no natural energy sources. In which case, must import all energy supplies, therefore highly dependent upon Russia. Dispute with Russia in 2005/2006 over pricing resulted in economic sanctions against Moldova. Brought about economic slow down during these years, from which it is just recovering. Illustrates overdependence on Russia.
Government: Democratic Republic
Religion: Eastern Orthodox 98%
Demographics: Moldovan 78%, Ukrainian 8% (fluctuating borderlands with Ukraine throughout history), Russian 6% (as part of USSR – population redistribution).
Foreign Policy: Historically a Romanian people/nation, but broken off by Russia after WWII. Romania still interested in Moldova, possibly even interested in eventually absorbing Moldova. Many Moldovans may actually welcome such an outcome, while the current government is very resistant of such a possibility. Russians maintain troops in turbulent Transnistria region (eastern edge of Moldova), against the will of the Moldovan government. Moldova also tries to maintain a delicate balance with Russia, upon which it is overly dependent for energy, while trying to establish relations with the rest of Europe.
Population: 4,324,450 (2008)

 
Formation of Nations (All European Nations)

 

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