Detailed Timeline of
British-Controlled Monarchy (1917-58)
(Timeline Continued Below)
King Faisal Installed and Upheld by British (1921-33): Faisal was seen by many Arabs as a legitimate ruler, with bloodlines leading to Muhammad, and his leadership role in the Arab revolt during WWI also added to his credibility. He was initially appointed king of Syria, but was ousted by the French when he attempted to drive them out and reclaim Lebanon. From the British perspective, he had enough legitimacy to pacify the majority Arab population, while also being viewed as a leader that could still be controlled. Although somewhat problematic based on his revolt in Syria, the British were desperate to achieve some semblance of order after a year marked by mayhem. Iraq was in deep debt to the UK, and Faisal also recognized his position was dependant upon the British. Therefore, he was forced to agree to keep British officials in his cabinet, and to submit to British demands as they arose. This balance would work for some time, yet nationalistic dissension would surge beneath the surface, as Iraqis recognized that they were essentially under British control. King Faisal sought greater relations and ties with Syria, inviting many skilled workers and professionals into Iraq. He was allowed to establish an army. He was fairly effective at stabilizing Iraq, which was given a fair amount of autonomy by the British. The UK carefully orchestrated a balance of power where Faisal held sufficient power to maintain stability, while the tribal chieftains were supported by the British to the extent that they could be used to overpower Faisal if necessary. Faisal ruled until his death in 1933. He was succeeded by his son, then grandson who ruled until the monarchy was overthrown in 1958.
Transjordan Granted Semi-Independence (1923): Granted semi-independence from UK in 1923. The rest of Palestine still ruled directly by the British, who allow the gradual settlement of European Jews in the territory.
Further Understanding: Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC)
Originally formed in 1912 by large European oil companies to explore for oil fields in Iraq, under contract with the Ottoman Empire. After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in WWI, it primarily consisted of British, French & Dutch. At the insistence of the U.S., American companies were also let in. The IPC agreed to furnish the Iraqi government with 20% of the profits generated from oil fields it developed and operated. In 1927, the IPC discovered oil near Kirkuk (Northern Iraq). Since all partner companies had major sources of crude outside Iraq, they conspired to keep Iraqi oil off the market, keeping it in reserve instead, in order to maintain higher prices for existing sources of crude. In which case, these companies maintained higher profits, while the Iraqi government lost out on profits. This arrangement would be maintained until 1961, after a coup overthrew the British-controlled Kingdom of Iraq, establishing Iraqi independence. At this point in time, they would nationalize IPC holdings throughout Iraq, and begin to realize profit from their oil fields.
Iraqis Overthrow British-Puppet Monarchy (March 31, 1941): Mired in WWII, Iraqis capitalize and seize control of Iraq.
British invade from Transjordan (May 3-10, 1941).
British invade from India (May 3-10, 1941).
British reclaim Royal Air Force Base Habbaniya primarily through air strikes (May 10, 1941).
Germans attempt to attack British from German-controlled Syria (May 10-31, 1941).
British ground forces capture Baghdad, re-installing pro-British monarchy (May 31, 1941).
Note: Aftermath of WWII Uprising. Iraq was forced to cooperate with the British in the region throughout the remainder of WWII, being used as a launching point for invasions into Syria, Lebanon and Iran. British forces continued to occupy Iraq until 1947. The occupation only further fueled anti-British sentiment, and pro-Iraqi nationalism, which would lead to the overthrow of the pro-British monarchy in 1958.
Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan Established (1946): Jordan is granted complete independence from UK.
Iraq Participation in Arab-Israeli War (1948): The Iraqi government actively opposed the partition of Palestine, in which the Israeli nation was created. The Iraqis performed poorly in the war, due to lack of training and being poorly-equipped. Jews in Iraq were persecuted during this time, leading to the migration of 120,000 Iraqi Jews (a fairly affluent group) to Israel. The war contributed to economic problems (military costs and financial aid given to Palestinian refugees) and demographic issues with the loss of the educated and affluent Jewish community.
Riots in Iraq (1952): The depressed economic situation in 1952 led to riots and widespread dissent, which was brutally suppressed by the Prime Minister (serving under the teenage King Faisal II). But in this same year, new pipelines were built, and new agreements drafted with western oil companies, netting Iraq 50% of profits instead of 20%. State revenues quadrupled as a result. However, the profits were narrowly distributed. Consequently, the general public was actually financially harmed, due to stagnant salaries in the inflationary economic environment as a result of the increased money infused into the system. Only the elite were monetarily benefited.
(Timeline Continued Below)
Baghdad Pact (1956): Aligned Iraq with UK, Iran, Turkey and Pakistan, all at the support and behest of the US. The US saw it as an anti-communist organization, while the British were motivated in attempt to maintain control and influence in a region of the world slipping away from them. For the Arab monarchs, it served the purpose of resisting pro-Arab overtures from Egypt President Nasser, who espoused a united Arab political entity to resist western influence and minimize Islamic theocracies. It paved the way to the imminent overthrow of the Iraqi monarchy, as pro-Arabs were able to point to the obvious western control of the current regime. The Suez Canal Crisis in 1956-57 (pitting UK vs Egypt) compounded the problem for the Iraqi monarchy, as it exposed complicit support against the Arab cause in Egypt.
Iraqi Revolution (1958): Finally fed up with the British-controlled monarch, the Iraqi army moved into Baghdad, deposing the King and his Prime Minister. Both were executed along with many of their administration and members of the royal family, marking the beginning of the independent Iraqi Republic. The British embassy was also damaged. The coup met no opposition, as the Iraqi people were largely in favor of regime change.