Detailed Timeline of
Age of Exploration (1505
First Spanish settlement in the Caribbean (1508): Spain would proceed to settle several islands, bringing in black slaves and killing off most of indigenous populations (primarily through disease). As a result, many former European colonies in Latin America have a primarily Black African lineage, as opposed to pre-Columbian native.
Venice Liberated from Ottoman Empire (1509): Frees itself from Ottoman control in 1509, but loses the island of Cyprus to the Ottomans. Continues to expand northward deeper into Northern Italy, as Holy Roman Empire control in the region weakens.
First Spanish settlement on American mainland in Panama (1510).
Spain Absorbs Kingdom of Navarre (1513): The small kingdom located at the north of the Iberian peninsula (Hispania) is finally assimilated into the Kingdom of Spain, consolidating Spain's rule over all of the peninsula, with the exception of Portugal on the west coast.
Protestant Reformation (1517): Begins with Martin Luther in Germany and John Calvin in Switzerland, who question the authority and some of the points of doctrine in the Catholic Church.
Further Understanding: The Protestant Reformation
Origins. Originates with the Black Death Plague of the 14th
century, which undermined Catholic authority, as prayers and Catholic
worship were of no help. The Church also supported the aristocrats in
forcing the peasant class to continue to work for pittance, despite the
fact that labor became a scarcity, and therefore should have commanded a
much higher price under a fair economic system.
(Timeline Continued Below)
Austria-Spain Connection (1519): King Charles I of Spain inherits Austria, bringing Spain, Netherlands, Austria and overseas possessions under one crown. Austria still remains part of Holy Roman Empire. As a result, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire cooperate on several occasions to maintain the supremacy of Catholicism, and to promote Spanish-German dominance. The Habsburg Empire is divided by Charles in 1556 between his son and brother, with the Netherlands and Northern Italy going to Spain.
Cortez leads Spanish conquest of Mexico (1519): From there, Spain expands throughout Central America.
Portuguese Discover Straight of Magellan (1520): Portuguese explorer Magellan discovers a pass through southern tip of South America, connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It is named the Straight of Magellan.
Hungary Conquered by Ottoman Empire (1521).
First Spanish Colonization in South America (1522): Spain establishes the first settlement in South America (Venezuela), expanding south from there into most of the rest of the continent, except Brazil, which was dominated by the Portuguese.
Dissolution of Kalmar Union (1523): Sweden withdraws from the union that binded it with Denmark and Norway, primarily over dissatisfaction with Denmark domination. Sweden becomes independent, while Denmark & Norway combine to form Denmark-Norway.
Peasant’s War in Germany (1524): Sparked by “Humanism” (individual rights) as inspired by the Protestant movement. A forerunner to the revolutionary and enlightenment ideals that transform Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Eastern Prussia Conquered by Poland (1525): Poland conquers from Teutonic Knights in 1525. The Knights, who are responsible for Christianizing the area, are expelled to Germany, ending their presence in Prussia. Most of the inhabitants in the area have been Germanized, paving the way for German conquest of the area in 1618.
Austrian Expansion (1526): Austria conquers Bohemia and part of Hungary, entering into ongoing battles with the Ottoman Turks for territorial control. Bohemians maintain Czech as primary language, which has survived to this day. Czechs rebel, while Moravians (modern east Czech Rep.) submit peacefully. Habsburgs deal harshly with the Czechs, forcibly submitting them to direct rule (accustomed to autonomy within Holy Roman Empire).
Austria Conquers Western Hungary From Ottoman Empire (1526): Austria conquers the western portion of Hungary from the Ottomans. The Austrians and Ottomans would continue to battle one another for control of Hungary, resulting in a stalemate, with Ottomans maintaining control over Eastern Hungary, and Austria over Western Hungary.
Ottoman Empire Conquers Former Mongol States (1526): Ottomans conquer Mongol successor states in southern Ukraine, consisting primarily of Turkish people formerly under Mongol rule.
In brief war with Spain, France loses territory to Spanish Netherlands (1528).
Genoa (Italy) Independence (1528): Came under French control in 1499. With the help of the Spanish, became independent from French rule in 1528. It was officially sovereign after this point, but subordinate to Spain, who oversaw foreign policy and offered protection.
Portugal begins colonizing Brazil (1530).
Pizzaro leads Spanish conquest of Incas in Peru (1532).
France Gains Possession of Brittany (1532): Brittany is finally annexed into France, after years of fighting to resist annexation. Brittany was settled by Bretons (ancient Britain inhabitants) after the Roman withdrawal from Britannia and Gaul (France) in the 5th century. They had maintained a separate sense of nationhood since the beginning of the Frankish Kingdom. Brittany becomes completely assimilated into France from a cultural, language and genetic standpoint.
Further Understanding: Further Development of France
France is forced into cohesion over centuries of England & German invasions. This unlocks the potential of a large and decentralized populace with a common sense of identity going back to the Frankish-Gaulic assimilation, the origin of the concept of "French" as a people, language and culture. The formation of the super power of France is the natural consequence of the consolidation of those who consider themselves "French", as they occupy an expansive and strategic region in Western Europe. As a result, France continues to remain a power throughout history even when weakened by war on their own land, and even when they lose the war.
France Claims Possession of Canada (1534).
Wales Absorbed into England (1535): Fully incorporated into England, so no more legal separation.
Ireland Conquered by England (1536): England conquers Ireland, to bring it fully under its control. A decentralized Ireland had continued to act with hostility toward England, inviting foreign powers to threaten England, ultimately eliciting a conquest by England.
Spain explores and claims large tracts of land in southern U.S. (1539).
Spanish Colonies Begin to Pay Dividends (1546): Spain’s American Empire finally begins paying off large dividends, primarily thanks to precious metals being mined in central/south America.
Consolidation of Russia (1547): Ivan IV becomes the first Tsar of Russia (still Grand Duchy of Moscow), and the first to consolidate previously semi-independent principalities. It marks the first time that the East Slavs of the former Kievan Rus are truly consolidated. As a result, they are able to take advantage of the now loosely-organized Turks to the south and east, assimilating them into Russia. With vast amounts of land under its control, yet restricted sea access (especially warm-water ports), and a large yet spread out population, Russia is largely dictated by its geopolitical situation throughout history. That is, it will generally be a formidable land-based power that dominates its immediate region. However, it will struggle to project power abroad due to insufficient naval capability. It's spread out population will cause it to largely lag behind the western world socially, economically and technologically.
Russian Conquests of Turkish Muslim Territories (1552): Russia conquers and annexes Khanate of Kazan and Astrakhan, adding a significant Turkish/Muslim population. Russia becomes a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-religious state with its new acquisitions.
France Loses Savoy, Italy (1553): This petty kingdom became the object of territorial ambition for both France and Spain, which inherited much of Northern Italy through marriage. Savoy remained in France's hands until 1553, when Spain pried it away. From that point forward, it would alternative between being an independent kingdom to a semi-autonomous possession of Spain.
Peace of Augsburg - Religious Choice for German Princes (1555): Catholics forced to concede a degree of religious freedom, by allowing German princes to determine the official religion for their respective states (Catholicism or Lutheranism).
Netherlands Transferred to Spain (1556): Charles I of Spain, a Habsburg who inherited the Austrian Empire in 1519, divides his massive empire, assigning the Netherlands to Spain, away from Austria.
Livonian War (1558-82): Pits Russia against Denmark, Sweden, Lithuania and Poland, for control of Greater Livonia (modern Estonia, Latvia). Russia's objective was to gain access to the Baltic Sea, but these other nations had claims in area as well, triggering a war over the territory. Russia loses in 1582, losing access to the Baltic Sea. Sweden gains Estonia.
French Wars of Religion (1562-89): Between Catholics and Protestant Huguenots. After years of fighting, the Huguenots finally compel the Catholic monarchy to arrive at a settlement, ensuring a degree of religious tolderance in France. Protestant revolts would continue to rise throughout time, as various kings would restrict freedoms. Catholicism would forever remain more prominent than Protestantism in France.
Nordic Seven Years’ War (1563-70): Between Sweden and an alliance of Denmark-Norway and Poland-Lithuania, over the domination of regional trade routes, especially in the North and Baltic Seas. In addtion, tensions between Sweden and Denmark-Norway were still high due to the bloody break up of the Kalmar Union. Sweden wins, becoming the leading military power in Northern Europe.
Spain Conquers Florida from France (1565): Spain sacks French settlement in Florida, reconstituting it as St. Augustine.
Beginning of Dutch War of Independence vs Spain (1568): Also known as Eighty Years’ War. Between Spain and the Dutch, as the primarily-Protestant Dutch rebel against Catholic Spain, due to religious oppression and dissatisfaction with foreign rule.
Establishment of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569): Covered modern Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Latvia, along with large parts of Ukraine, and parts of Russia. Poland would be the dominant entity. The nation would flourish for the first 100 years. Lithuania was forced to combine with Poland to protect itself from an expanding Russian threat. Domestically, Poland and Lithuania would continue to operate under a separate set of laws, but foreign policy and military actions would be coordinated under Polish control.
Spain Takes Control of Mediterranean Sea From Ottoman Empire (1571): Spain defeats the Ottoman navy, ending its dominance of the Med. Sea.
Basis for Modern Netherlands (1579): The “Southern Netherlands” (roughly modern Belgium and Luxembourg - shaded) is conquered by Spain in the Eighty Years’ War, while the “Northern Netherlands” (highlighted) continues the fight for independence. The "North" forms the "United Provinces” (roughly modern Netherlands).
Portugal Falls Under Spanish Rule (1580-1640): In 1578, Portugal King Sebastian dies without a direct heir, while aiding Morocco against Ottomans. Philip II of Spain is the closest heir. In 1580, Philip II of Spain conquers Portugal to assert his claim for the throne, forming the Iberian Union. Beginning of decline of Portuguese colonial empire, as Portugal is unable to properly administer to and defend its overseas possessions (also neglected by Spain) while under Spanish control.
England's First Colonization Attempt in North America (1583): England claims Newfoundland (Canada), first overseas possession. Attempts first colony in 1584 (Roanoke, NC), but fails.
Latvia Conquered by Poland (1583): Russia attempted to take possession of the lands bordering the Baltic Sea upon the collapse of the Teutonic Knights. But a coalition of Poland-Lithuania, Denmark and Sweden thwarted their designs. As part of the victorious party, Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth absorbs Latvia, which becomes the Duchy of Livonia.
Failed Spanish Naval Invasion of England (1588): As part of Eighty Years’ War, England attacks Spanish ships in Atlantic, and Spanish colonies in the Americas. Spain sends a failed armada (naval invasion) to England.
Note: English rise to dominance corresponds to its increase in naval power, marked by the Spanish Armada victory. At the time, it was thought that no one could stand up to the Spanish navy. Victory in the Battle of Swally (India) against Portugal, establishes England as the new dominant player in the Asian spice trade, drastically increasing its wealth and power.
Croatia Freed from Ottoman Rule (1593): Austria drives Ottoman Turks out of all of Croatia.
Russia Conquers Siberia (1598): Russia's conquest of Siberia (Khanate of Siberia). Consists of a mixture of Turkish and other Central Asian peoples native to the region, further adding to the cultural and ethnic diversity of the Slavic empire. By 1640, Russians expand the territory of Siberia across the sparsely-populated forests and frozen lands to the Pacific Ocean.
Spain claims/gains control of much of southwest U.S. (1598).
Austria Gains Control Over Transylvania from Ottoman Empire (1599): Austria gains control over Transylvania, brutally forcing Roman Catholicism upon the largely Protestant population, imposing a reign of terror lasting until 1604. The Protestants would then revolt, forcing a peace with Austria, where religious tolerance prevailed. Ottomans still technically possesses region, but not exerting control.
Transylvania, Romania (1599): Austria gains control over Transylvania, while the region remains part of the Ottoman Empire in name only.
British East India Company (1600): Creation of British East India Company, which would come to dominate Asian Spice Trade, establishing several colonies in India.
(Timeline Continued Below)
France begins colonizing New France, aka Canada (1605).
First Successful English Colony in North America (1607): First permanent English colony overseas: Jamestown VA. The beginning of North American colonization. Attracts English settlers in search of religious freedom from the Church of England, as well as economic freedom and adventure.
English Naval Victory Over Portugal in India (1612): Battle of Swally off the western coast of India. England defeats Portugal, overtaking them as the dominant force in the Asian Spice Trade.
Romanov Dynasty in Russia (1613): Lasts until the Communist Revolution in 1917. From 1603 to 1613, Russia experienced famine, then subsequent civil wars which lured the Polish to invade and take the throne. The Polish were ousted in 1613, and a Romanov was elected to the throne, establishing the long-lived Russian Empire.
Beginning of Dutch Colonial Empire (1614): The Dutch begin their American colonial empire, with New Amsterdam (NY) followed by Virgin Islands. It is the golden age for the Netherlands, which gains many new colonies, while becoming a leader in the transatlantic slave trade.
Duchy of Prussia (1618): Eastern Prussia is inherited by Brandenburg (state within Holy Roman Empire), removing it from Poland rule, forming the Duchy of Bradenburg-Prussia, eventually simplifying its name to the Duchy of Prussia. It would eventually expand to dominate all the German states, leading the way to the establishment of the German Empire in the 19th century.
Thirty Years’ War Pitting Catholics vs. Protestants in Holy Roman Empire/Germany (1618-48): The Austrian Holy Roman Emperor institutes strict Catholic policies, reversing the Peace of Augsburg, resulting in a Protestant revolt. Catholic side led by Austria, joined by other German Catholic princes and Spain. Protestant England and Sweden provide support to the Protestant German princes, as does Catholic France, which is more interested in harming Spain than bolstering Catholicism outside of its own borders. The war ends with only Austria under Catholic control, creating further German fragmentation, decentralization.
Dutch Invasion of Portugal Colonies (1619-63): Dutch (Netherlands) systematically invade and conquer a substantial portion of Portuguese colonies, as part of Eighty Years’ War (or Dutch Wars of Independence) against Spain. Spain, which had annexed Portugal, prohibits it from trading with the Dutch. The Dutch then proceed to overtake Portuguese possessions as a necessity to obtain Asian goods. Due to the weakened condition of Portuguese colonies (not properly administered to or protected under Spanish rule), the Netherlands are frequently successful in their conquests, overtaking various colonies in Africa and Asia.
Note: Dutch Geopolitical Advantage of the Atlantic. Like other nations with easy access to the Atlantic Ocean, the Dutch adopt the naval technology and culture necessary to gain their share of the vast riches and power awaiting them, helping to transform them from a mere outpost in the Spanish Empire (Austrian and Holy Roman before that), into a global power.
France colonizes French Guiana in South America (1624).
English Begin Colonization of the Caribbean (1625): English settle Barbados in Caribbean, beginning colonization of region, where they would develop a substantial presence. They created the highly successful sugar cane industry, which was built largely upon the backs of black slaves from Africa. The French gain foothold on nearby island of Tortuga, and also share St. Kitts with the British.
Polish-Swedish War Ending in Sweden Victory (1625–29): Battle for supremacy along the southern Baltic coast. Sweden captures Baltic territories, including large parts of Latvia and Estonia.
Note: Sweden Rise to Power. Sweden had consolidated more effectively than its northern neighbors (through Christianity). They had become centralized and organized to the point that they were able to create a professional army, requiring all villages/families to provide a certain number of soldiers. This enabled it to establish military dominance in the north.
Portugal Regains Independence From Spain (1640): Portugal regains independence as Spain is bogged down by multiple wars in the Netherlands and Germany. Spain is not in a position to prevent Portugal from asserting independence.
First English Civil War (1642): Pitted King Charles I versus parliament, as the parliament was not in agreement with his close ties to the French, and ambitions to keep England in multiple military conflicts throughout Europe, which were expensive. Resulted in Civil War between Parliamentarians and Royalists, with Parliamentarians eventually rising to victory. The subsequent government would descend into chaos and conflict, resulting in the restoration of a king. However, powers of the king would be limited, constituting a parliamentary monarchy, forming the basis for the first semi-democratic government, a predecessor to true democracies later in history.
Dutch Wins Independence From Spain (1648): End of Eighty Years’ War. Netherlands (United Provinces) defeats Spain, as fellow Protestant nations of England and Sweden come to their aid. Despite being a Catholic nation, France also helps the Dutch, since supporting Catholicism becomes less important than diminishing its primary rival of Spain. Spain was also bogged down by its involvement in the religiously-driven 30-Years' War in Germany.
Note: Rise & Fall of Spain. Becomes dominant continental/world power in 16th century, being dogged by constant warfare as other European nations fight to contain Spain, resulting in decline of Spanish continental dominance in 17th century.
France Gains Small Territory from Netherlands (1648): Gains territory lost to Spanish Netherlands in 1528 after helping Dutch to gain victory in their war of independence with Spain.
Turkish Cossack Uprising in Poland-Lithuania (1648): Cossacks revolt against Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in an independent state that became a client state to Russia. As part of their uprising, the Cossacks slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Jews due to suspicions that they were cooperating with Poland to keep the Cossacks under Polish control.
Note: Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italy). Became completely independent from foreign rule, forming into an independent Republic.
Note: Spanish Italy. Spain inherits a large chunk of Northern Italy through marriage. The territory is an afterthought to Spain, causing it to descend into economic decline by imposing heavy taxes to support its continuous involvement in wars. Southern Italy remains under Spanish control, as a neglected backwater of the Spanish Empire.
Note: Papal States. Still ruled by the pope, which struggles to control its subordinate principalities, which commonly attempt to operate with autonomy.
what benefits do you think the age of exploration had on the world at that particular point in time?
#1 - fatima - 07/20/2012 - 03:12
is there an answer to this question?
#2 - anonymous - 10/22/2012 - 16:52
What legacies were left as a result of Historical Globalization?
#3 - Janelle - 12/03/2012 - 16:05
I can\'t find anything about Germany!!!
#4 - BoogyBoo - 02/04/2013 - 09:35
Denmark and Norway had already been joined as one Kingdom; it was the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway combining with the Kingdom of Sweden-Finland to create the Kalmar Union, which was dissolved in 1523 after Sweden (and thus Finland) decided they'd had enough.
#5 - Haku - 03/19/2013 - 20:43
There was no St. Petersburg in 1582
#6 - Elliott - 07/26/2013 - 19:31
This is stupid and should be updated :I
#7 - Name - 04/29/2014 - 16:00
This is awesome i absolutely love social studies it is so interesting
#8 - love school - 05/28/2014 - 17:15